TitleThe NASA Twins Study: A multidimensional analysis of a year-long human spaceflight.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2019
AuthorsGarrett-Bakelman, Francine E., Darshi Manjula, Green Stefan J., Gur Ruben C., Lin Ling, Macias Brandon R., McKenna Miles J., Meydan Cem, Mishra Tejaswini, Nasrini Jad, Piening Brian D., Rizzardi Lindsay F., Sharma Kumar, Siamwala Jamila H., Taylor Lynn, Vitaterna Martha Hotz, Afkarian Maryam, Afshinnekoo Ebrahim, Ahadi Sara, Ambati Aditya, Arya Maneesh, Bezdan Daniela, Callahan Colin M., Chen Songjie, Choi Augustine M. K., Chlipala George E., Contrepois Kévin, Covington Marisa, Crucian Brian E., De Vivo Immaculata, Dinges David F., Ebert Douglas J., Feinberg Jason I., Gandara Jorge A., George Kerry A., Goutsias John, Grills George S., Hargens Alan R., Heer Martina, Hillary Ryan P., Hoofnagle Andrew N., Hook Vivian Y. H., Jenkinson Garrett, Jiang Peng, Keshavarzian Ali, Laurie Steven S., Lee-McMullen Brittany, Lumpkins Sarah B., MacKay Matthew, Maienschein-Cline Mark G., Melnick Ari M., Moore Tyler M., Nakahira Kiichi, Patel Hemal H., Pietrzyk Robert, Rao Varsha, Saito Rintaro, Salins Denis N., Schilling Jan M., Sears Dorothy D., Sheridan Caroline K., Stenger Michael B., Tryggvadottir Rakel, Urban Alexander E., Vaisar Tomas, Van Espen Benjamin, Zhang Jing, Ziegler Michael G., Zwart Sara R., Charles John B., Kundrot Craig E., Scott Graham B. I., Bailey Susan M., Basner Mathias, Feinberg Andrew P., Lee Stuart M. C., Mason Christopher E., Mignot Emmanuel, Rana Brinda K., Smith Scott M., Snyder Michael P., and Turek Fred W.
JournalScience
Volume364
Issue6436
Date Published2019 04 12
ISSN1095-9203
KeywordsAdaptation, Physiological, Adaptive Immunity, Astronauts, Body Weight, Carotid Arteries, Carotid Intima-Media Thickness, DNA Damage, DNA Methylation, Gastrointestinal Microbiome, Genomic Instability, Humans, Male, Space Flight, Telomere Homeostasis, Time Factors, United States, United States National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Abstract

<p>To understand the health impact of long-duration spaceflight, one identical twin astronaut was monitored before, during, and after a 1-year mission onboard the International Space Station; his twin served as a genetically matched ground control. Longitudinal assessments identified spaceflight-specific changes, including decreased body mass, telomere elongation, genome instability, carotid artery distension and increased intima-media thickness, altered ocular structure, transcriptional and metabolic changes, DNA methylation changes in immune and oxidative stress-related pathways, gastrointestinal microbiota alterations, and some cognitive decline postflight. Although average telomere length, global gene expression, and microbiome changes returned to near preflight levels within 6 months after return to Earth, increased numbers of short telomeres were observed and expression of some genes was still disrupted. These multiomic, molecular, physiological, and behavioral datasets provide a valuable roadmap of the putative health risks for future human spaceflight.</p>

DOI10.1126/science.aau8650
Alternate JournalScience
PubMed ID30975860
PubMed Central IDPMC7580864
Grant ListK01 AG035031 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
K12 HL120001 / HL / NHLBI NIH HHS / United States
P30 DK017047 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States
P30 DK035816 / DK / NIDDK NIH HHS / United States